Royal Library Madrid
The Royal Library is located in the Royal Palace of Madrid. Felipe V has created two well-differentiated institutions: the Royal Library or the Private Library for use by monarchs and their families, and the Royal Public Library, designed especially for open use. This second library is now called the National Library.
The Book of Hours of Isabella of Castile
The Book of Hours of Isabella of Castile is an imposing and abundantly decorated work. Passed by successive family inheritances, the precious book leaves the Spanish royal family around 1642. In 1936, the Book of Hours will be the only manuscript of the Spanish national treasure sent to Geneva for protection during the Spanish Civil War.
The symbol of the winner taken over by Franco
The symbol of the winner is an emblem that is painted on the walls of some Spanish and Latin American universities to commemorate students who have received the doctoral degree. The custom dates back to the 14th century. According to the latter, when a student receives the doctorate, the symbol of the winner is painted on the walls of the university in red or black paint with the name of the student.
At the end of the Spanish Civil War, the winner’s sign was adopted as a symbol of the victory of the nationalists in the war, and it came to be used as a personal emblem for the dictator Francisco Franco. Despite its earlier use by Franco, it is still used in its original sense in several universities.
The winner symbol takes the form of letters V, I, C, T, O and R arranged in a stylized manner and varying from one symbol to another. In some cases, the letter C is omitted.
Next chapter: Chapter 40